The species of the genus Capsicum L.:

The genus Capsicum L. belongs to the family Solanaceae (tomato, eggplant, potato, tobacco, etc.). Is native to South America but is now grown all over the world. The genus includes about 35 species of wild and domesticated. The domesticated species are 5 and are among the most used and known.

Capsicum annuum L.:

Capsicum annuumSpecies native to Mexico and Central America, this species is the most common and cultivated, probably because of its easy adaptability to different climates. In addition, ease of cultivation and limited spiciness makes it accessible to everyone. Among his most famous varieties are the classic sweet peppers, the Cayenne, the Jalapeno, Serrano and Poblano. The flowers of this species are free of blemishes and generally white, but there are varieties with flowers in it entirely from the color purple or white edged with purple. Some Hungarians variety of this species are used for the production of the famous Paprika.

Capsicum baccatum L.:

Capsicum baccatumOriginal species from Bolivia and Peru. In South America many varieties of this species are called ”Aji”. This species has one of the most flavorful varieties, with a wide range of colors, shapes and flavors, ranging from sour to sweet and fruity. They are in fact widely used in the Bolivian and Peruvian cuisine. Among his most famous varieties are the Aji amarillo, the Aji Pineapple, the Criolla Sella. The flowers of this species are white with blemishes yellow or green. The degree of hotness is medium.

Capsicum chinense Jacq.:

Capsicum chinenseThis species is native from the Amazon but is now the main species cultivated in the Caribbean, Mexico and in the area east of the Andes. Within this species there are varieties hottest ever. Among his most famous varieties are the Habanero, Scotch Bonnet, Trinidad Scorpion and 7 Pod. The flowers of this species are usually white or greenish with purple anthers, in some varieties, however, the flowers are white with purple spots on the outside and / or inside the corolla.

Capsicum frutescens L.:

Capsicum frutescensSpecies native to Mexico and Central America. Grows well in all tropical and subtropical regions, is in fact a species much cultivated in South Asia and South East Asia. This follows the species Capsicum chinense by degree of spiciness. Among his most famous varieties are the Tabasco, the African Bird's Eye or Piri Piri, the Malagueta. The flowers of this species are white or greenish with purple anthers. Some peculiarities in frutescens flowers are: the tip of the petals rolled back, and the acute angle formed at the end of the stalk that will straighten after fruit flower bringing the fruits in an upright position.

Capsicum pubescens Ruiz & Pav.:

Capsicum pubescensSpecies native to the slopes of the Peruvian Andes. Cultivated by the Incas for thousands of years, this mountain species differs most from the others by its pubescence (hairiness), the flowers are purple and seeds blacks. There are some rare varieties such as Rocoto San Isidro and Sukanya, with almost white flowers. It also has the distinction of not being possible to cross with any other domestic species. Among his most famous varieties are the Rocoto, in Bolivia is called Locoto, and Manzano in Mexico because of its shape resembling an apple.

Wild species:

Species of the Andean region and in other areas of central South America:

Capsicum chacoense (synonymous with C.exile) - northern Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay
Capsicum cardenasii (ulupica) - Bolivia
Capsicum eximium - northern Argentina, Bolivia
Capsicum tovarii - Peru
Capsicum galapagoense - Ecuador
Capsicum coccineum - Bolivia, Peru
Capsicum dimorphum - Colombia
Capsicum geminifolium - Colombia, Ecuador
Capsicum hookerianum - Ecuador
Capsicum scolnikianum - Peru
Capsicum caballeroi - Bolivia
Capsicum ceratocalyx - Bolivia

Species of the south-east of Brazil:

Capsicum buforum
Capsicum praetermissum
Capsicum flexuosum
Capsicum campylopodium
Capsicum cornutum synonymous with C.dusenii
Capsicum admirable
Capsicum schottianum
Capsicum villosum
Capsicum recurvatum
Capsicum hunzikerianum
Capsicum pereirae
Capsicum friburgense

Species in the north-east of Brazil and Venezuela:

Capsicum parvifolium

Species of northern South America and Central America:

Capsicum ciliatum synonymous with C.rhomboideum, former Witheringia ciliata
Capsicum lanceolatum - Mexico, Guatemala.



Some crosses between different species are subject to an order of pollination. For example, if a C. annuum pollinates a C. frutescens, the seeds will be fertile, in the opposite case it will be very difficult for the seeds to germinate.

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