GERMINATION AND CULTIVATION OF CHILLI:

The cultivation of peppers is quite simple if we restrict ourselves to cultivate in pots. The plant needs no special care. It’s enough some attention and passion. When the peppers be cultivated in the open field or in large quantities, it`s different. Relatively easy because in reality a little work and patience is needed. Let’s start with the selection of seeds and species which we want to cultivate. The seeds you can buy in garden centers or even better in specialized internet shops. These guarantee that they are unmixed and pure. If you not live in the tropics, you should know that you can`t sow all species at the same time. Even under optimal conditions, germination may be slow and uneven. Species such as C.Chinense or wild species can have a germination period of up to one month. Not only, but always based on the species and type, the peppers have a different lengths of maturity. From germination to maturation of the peppers: 90-100 days for C. Annuum, 100-120 days for C. Baccatum, C. Frutescens, C. Pubescens-15o and 100 days for C. Chinense and wild species. It is therefore an indispensable tool to sow early if you want to cultivate special species. The first phase is germination. There exist various techniques to bring to germinate the seeds, but the classic is upon/in the soil or in paper towels. The temperature and humidity are essential for both types. The best for the cultivation with soil are small flowerpots or small plastic cups. Both must be provided with a hole underneath to prevent the accumulation of water and with a good soil. Suitable would be a mixture of soil and sand. The seeds should not be inserted too far into the soil, to ensure that they not suffocate. A few millimeters are sufficient.
Even if the humidity is essential for the germination process, the soil have to be moist but not wet. In a humid environment is the risk of mold formation and the seed tends to rot. Equal the type of seed; the rule of thumb is a temperature of 25-30C. If you choose to grow only one plant and you never forget the right, you can make the germination on a warm surface. If there are more plants to be grown it will be much better to use small greenhouses, that can be found in any hardware store or at some nurseries. The germination method with paper towels consists in to put the seeds between two paper towels in a small plastic container with lid or any other closed vessel. Also here is the humidity very important. This method has the advantage that many seeds can germinate at the same time to bring order to increase the probability of the number of germinating seeds, and so plant the "first germ ends". When the seed germinates, a small white root is revealed and before it is too long and fragile, they must be planted with care at a shallow depth. The peppers prefer to grow in a sunny area in a soft, well-drained soil with a pH value of about 6 (slightly acidic). The use of mixed soil ensures the good performance of the plant. Soil for vegetables 60%, 30% perlite, expanded clay 10%, and a handful of sand: A mixture would be interesting. Every day, water and prevent the accumulation of water. Fertilizer is also important, but always without exaggeration, because too much fertilizer leads to the burning of the roots. It recommends a fertilizer twice a month with a special fertilizer for tomatoes and vegetables. Each one of us cultivate on his own way, also regarding the prevailed climatic conditions, therefore, these data are to be regarded as a general recommendation.

OSMOPRIMING

As already mentioned, not all species and varieties have the same times of germination, and also seeding at the same time, some seedlings inside the germbox might be at a disadvantage compared with other regarding exposure to light. To standardize the different seed germination response there is an interesting technique, the osmopriming. Consists in putting in soaking the seeds for 24 or 48 hours in order to activate the germination process by the use of a solution of demineralized water and kitchen salt. The doses are 21 grams per liter of water. The seeds are put in the conditions of storing the amount of water necessary for germination until they find a "barrier" which prevents them from continuing represented by the osmotic potential, the salt in this case. The difference in osmotic pressure between the seed and the external solution (difference arose precisely from the salinity of the solution) will push the water molecules inside the seed thus activating all the metabolic processes of the seed within a few hours, thus offering significant savings of time. During treatment, all the seeds are thus gradually led to a same stage. The results that are obtained by following these treatments are reflected on the uniformity in germination, which results in the possibility to obtain a homogeneous growth of the seedlings. At the end of the treatment is important to remember to wash the seeds, so that the residual salt will not damage the radicle at the time of germination.

NUTRIENTS

Fertilize the soil properly is one of the first steps to have healthy plants, thriving and productive. The nutrients are therefore essential to the growth and maintenance of plant metabolism. The lack of nutrients occurs on plants in a variety of symptoms and characteristic manifestations. However, even an excess can damage or even ruin the whole plant. A right amount is to be evaluated on the type of land available, in fact sometimes, the characteristics of the composition of a soil (too clayey, acidic pH, too sandy, etc. ..), create situations that block the availability of certain nutrients, that, even if present, the plant is unable to assimilate. Furthermore, the overdose of a single element can prevent or limit the assimilation of another.

Nitrogen (N):

It ’a macroelement, essential constituent of all amino acids, proteins, chlorophyll molecules, nucleic acids (DNA, RNA), and is therefore important for the healthy growth of a plant. Promoting the production of chlorophyll is the nutrient with the most immediate and visible effect on the vegetative state of the plants. The prevalence of fertilization with nitrogen plants will lead to structurally strong and lush but poor or free from flowers and fruits. The lack instead is manifested by chlorosis (yellowing), first in older leaves and then the younger ones.

Phosphorus (P):

It ’a macroelement that plays an important role on the formation of roots and the flowering process. Activator of many enzyme activities, enters into the composition of reserve substances and vitamins. Also in this case the deficiency involves chlorosis but also block the growth.

Potassium (K):

It ’a macroelement fundamental to many biological processes, from the synthesis of sugars, the formation of the scents, the color of the petals and fruit ripening. Improves the lignification of tissues, strengthens plants and confers greater resistance to the effects of wind, heat and fungal diseases. Strengthens the structure of the plant and the quality of the fruit buds with robust and less susceptible to attacks of pathogens. It also controls the opening of the stomata of the leaves facilitating the discharge of water vapor transpiration of plants. Adjust the concentration of the sap making the plants less susceptible to freezing. Potassium deficiency leads to chlorosis and you notice yellowing of older leaves and the formation of white spots on the edge of the leaves. The buds and the stem are slightly lignified and break easily.

Magnesium (Mg):

It ’a mesoelement important for photosynthesis, for the formation of sugars, proteins, fats and vitamins. Participates in the formation of pigments such as carotene and xanthophylls, facilitates the transfer of phosphorus in the vegetative apex and in the seeds. The prevalence of fertilization with magnesium will lead to intense color, brilliant and flowers, fruits and vegetables more fragrant and colorful. The deficiency is manifested by an initial internervale yellowing of older leaves, then these tissues become necrotic and the leaf falls early, the flowers are small and not very colorful. Symptoms may vary, however, depending on the species.

Calcium (Ca):

It ’a mesoelement with the function of improving the general vigor of the plant and the hardness of the stems, affect the assimilation of other nutrients and neutralizes some toxic substances that are produced in plants. Essential component of protopectine present in the cell walls is directly responsible for the consistency of the fruit. Calcium intake increases in the mechanical strength of plant tissues to the action of support and reinforcement. In particular, has the ability to prolong the time of ripening and senescence of the fruit, while maintaining integrates the structure of the walls and cell membranes. The deficiency is manifested by an increase jagged because the tissues grow in a distorted and misshapen. The best method of administration is by foliar fertilization.

Sulfur (S):

It ’a mesoelement with function nutrition and care from fungal diseases. Necessary for the formation of proteins in the composition of enzymes and vitamins. It stimulates the absorption of nitrogen and phosphorus and is also essential for the activity of certain soil bacteria, the sulfur bacteria, which oxidize sulfur to sulfate, which makes it available to crops. Improves the physical-chemical characteristics of the soil, reduces the pH and promotes the absorption of meso-and microelements thus reducing any deficiencies. Moreover anticrittogamiche has excellent properties, particularly in the defense antioidica. Its action differs from common fungicides "systemic" as it penetrates the tissue and in the sap of the plants and therefore does not cause toxicity and resistance. The excess sulfur determines a progressive acidification of the medium causing damage to the plants. The deficiency results in chlorosis, small plants and delays ripening. Over 28 C the sulfur becomes phytotoxic, so it is advisable to use at night or early in the morning.

Iron (Fe):

It ’a microelement catalytic, considered among the most essential to plant life. It is found mainly in the leaves, accumulated mainly in the chloroplasts where it participates in the synthesis of chlorophyll, the pigment that colors the most important plants of the green and where photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy. In his absence all the green organs, will discolor for aclorofillia, that is poor or non-formation of chlorophyll. If the plant has deficiency chlorosis and discoloration, especially in young leaves. The veins remain green, however, and stand on the leaf lamina transparent and very fragile. We must not, however, exceed by administration of iron as manganese uptake is inhibited.

Manganese (Mn):

It ’a microelement that participates in the regulation of enzyme action, is involved in photosynthesis and hydrolysis of water, increases plant resistance to stress and disease. It is usually always present in quantities needed but the shortage leads to necrosis of the ribs and necrotic lesions spread. Unlike the other microelements, manganese can be absorbed by plants and accumulated in tissues in amounts exceeding the need, thus acting as toxic element.

Boron (B):

It ’a microelement necessary for pollen germination, for the formation of flowers, fruits and roots, for the transport of carbohydrates and for the absorption of cations, in particular calcium. Improves the process of fruit set. It 'also involved in the synthesis of colored pigments, facilitates the absorption of calcium and is essential because in its absence the higher plants can not complete their life cycle. The deficiency results in blocking the growth of roots.

Zinc (Zn):

It ’a microelement catalytic as it is a component of several enzyme systems that affect the metabolism of proteins. Tends to accumulate in areas of greatest physiological activity, in particular in the seeds, for which training and development are hampered by a lack of this element. Its deficiency also results in a growth arrest in that this element is essential for the synthesis of a growth hormone auxin.

Copper (Cu):

It 'a microelement whose catalytic activity in plant metabolism is often complementary to that of iron. Required for the synthesis of chlorophyll, protein and nitrogen fixation. The deficiency involves deformation and yellowing of leaves.

Molybdenum (Mo):

It 'a microelement essential in protein synthesis and nitrogen metabolism. In contrast to the other trace elements molybdenum is unavailable at neutral pH. The deficiency symptoms begin to manifest with chlorosis and necrosis along the main vein of the old leaves, while the younger ones appaioni deformed.

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